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【2017年6月英语四级真题】2017年6月英语四级阅读段落匹配真题及答案

2016-01-18  来源:考研备战  点击:

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  勤奋是最好的点金指,为了帮助大家备战今年的大学英语四级考试,以下是小编为大家搜索整理的2017年6月英语四级阅读段落匹配真题及答案,希望能给大家带来帮助!更多精彩内容请及时关注我们应届毕业生考试网!

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

  Can Burglars Jam Your Wireless Security System?

  [A]Any product that promises to protect your home deserves careful examination. So it isn’t surprising that you’ll find plenty of strong opinions about the potential vulnerabilities of popular home-security systems.

  [B]The most likely type of burglary (入室盗窃) by far is the unsophisticated crime of opportunity, usually involving a broken window or some forced entry. According to the FBI, crimes like these accounted roughly two-thirds of all household burglaries in the US in 2013.The wide majority of the rest were illegal, unforced entries that resulted from something like a window being left open. The odds of a criminal using technical means to bypass a security system are so small that the FBI doesn’t even track those statistics.

  [C]One of the main theoretical home-security concerns is whether or not a given system is vulnerable to being blocked from working altogether. With wired setups, the fear is that a burglar (入室盗贼) might be able to shut your system down simply by cutting the right cable. With a wireless setup, you stick battery-powered sensors up around your home that keep an eye on windows, doors, motion, and more. If they detect something wrong while the system is armed, they’ll transmit a wireless alert signal to a base station that will then raise the alarm. That approach will eliminate most cord-cutting concerns—but what about their wireless equivalent, jamming? With the right device tuned to the right frequency, what’s to stop a thief from jamming your setup and blocking that alert signal from ever reaching the base station?

  [D]Jamming concerns are nothing new, and they’re not unique to security systems. Any device that’s built to receive a wireless signal at a specific frequency can be overwhelmed by a stronger signal coming in on the same frequency. For comparison, let’s say you wanted to “jam” a conversation between two people—all you’d need to do is yell in the listener’s ear.

  [E] Security devices are required to list the frequencies they broadcast on—that means that a potential thief can find what they need to know with minimal Googling. They will, however, need so know what system they’re looking for. If you have a sign in your yard declaring what setup you use, that’d point them in the right direction, though at that point, we’re talking about a highly targeted, semi-sophisticated attack, and not the sort forced-entry attack that makes up the majority of burglaries. It’s easier to find and acquire jamming equipment for some frequencies than it is for others.

  [F] Wireless security providers will often take steps to help combat the threat of jamming attacks. SimpliSafe, winner of our Editor’s Choice distinction, utilizes a special system that’s capable of separating incidental RF interference from targeted jamming attacks. When the system thinks it’s being jammed, it’ll notify you via push alert(推送警报).From there, it’s up to you to sound the alarm manually.

  [G] SimpliSafe was singled out in one recent article on jamming, complete with a video showing the entire system being effectively bypassed with handheld jamming equipment. After taking appropriate measures to contain the RF interference to our test lab, we tested the attack out for ourselves, and were able to verify that it’s possible with the right equipment. However, we also verified that SimpliSafe’s anti-jamming system works. It caught us in the act, sent an alert to my smartphone, and also listed our RF interference on the system’s event log. The team behind the article and video in question make no mention of the system, or whether or not in detected them.

  [H]We like the unique nature of that software. It means that a thief likely wouldn’t be able to Google how the system works, then figure out a way around it. Even if they could, SimpliSafe claims that its system is always evolving, and that it varies slightly from system to system, which means there wouldn’t be a universal magic formula for cracking it. Other systems also seem confident on the subject of jamming. The team at Frontpoint addresses the issue in a blog on its site, citing their own jam protection software and claiming that there aren’t any documented cases of successful jam attack since the company began offering wireless security sensors in the 1980s.

  [I] Jamming attacks are absolutely possible. As said before, with the right equipment and the right know-how, it’s possible to jam any wireless transmission. But how probable is it that someone will successfully jam their way into your home and steal your stuff?

  [J] Let’s imagine that you live in a small home with a wireless security setup that offers a functional anti-jamming system. First, a thief is going to need to target your home, specifically. Then, he’s going to need to know the technical details of your system and acquire the specific equipment necessary for jamming your specific setup. Presumably, you keep your doors locked at night and while you’re away. So the thief will still need to break in. That means defeating the lock somehow, or breaking a window. He’ll need to be jamming you at this point, as a broken window or opened door would normally release the alarm. So, too, would the motion detectors in your home, so the thief will need to continue jamming once he’s inside and searching for things to steal. However, he’ll need to do so without tripping the anti-jamming system, the details of which he almost certainly does now have access to.

  [K]At the end of the day, these kinds of systems are primarily designed to protect against the sort of opportunistic smash-and-grab attack that makes up the majority of burglaries. They’re also only a single layer in what should ideally be a many-sided approach to securing your home, one that includes common sense things like sound locks and proper exterior lighting at night. No system is impenetrable, and none can promise to eliminate the worst case completely. Every one of them has vulnerabilities that a knowledgeable thief could theoretically exploit. A good system is one that keeps that worst-case setting as improbable as possible while also offering strong protection in the event of a less-extraordinary attack.

  36. It is possible for burglars to make jamming attacks with the necessary equipment and skill.

  37. Interfering with a wireless security system is similar to interfering with a conversation.

  38. A burglar has to continuously jam the wireless security device to avoid triggering the alarm, both inside and outside the house.

  39. SimpliSafe provides devices that are able to distinguish incidental radio interference from targeted jamming attacks.

  40. Only a very small proportion of burglaries are committed by technical means.

  41. It is difficult to crack SimpliSafe as its system keeps changing.

  42. Wireless devices will transmit signals so as to activate the alarm once something wrong is detected.

  43. Different measures should be taken to protect one’s home from burglary in addition to the wireless security system.

  44. SimpliSafe’s device can send a warning to the house owner’s cellphone.

  45. Burglars can easily get a security device’s frequency by Internet search.

  【段落匹配答案】

  Section B

  36. [I]

  37. [D]

  38. [J]

  39. [F]

  40. [B]

  41. [H]

  42. [C]

  43. [K]

  44. [G]

  45. [E]

  【解析】

  36. [I]对应关键词jamming attacks, 和equipment and skill在I段落中同时出现了两个关键词。

  37. [D]对应关键词wireless security system, 和conversation在原文中有复现.

  38. [J] 选项中wireless security system,和triggering the alarm可以在J选项中找到对应.

  39. [F]SimpliSafe, 大写名词很好定位,在加上复现的distinguish,radio interference可以锁定F.

  40. [B]根据small proportion可以确定唯一的选项B

  41. [H]对应关键词keeps changing

  42. [C]对应关键词transmit signals, 和activate.

  43. [K]根据选项different measures只在K段落中出现了。

  44. [G]选项cellphones是最关键的定位词,可以在G选项中找到复现。

  45. [E]选项frequent对应了段落的frequency。

  Part Ⅲ Reading Section B(卷二)

  The Secret to Raising Smart Kids

  37.The author's experiment shows that students with a fixed mind-set believe having to work hard is an indication of low ability.

  【答案】[F] As predicted, the students with a growth mind-set felt that learning was more important goal than getting good grades. In addition, they held hard work in high regard, They understood that even geniuses have to work hard. Confronted by a setback such as a disappointing test grade, students with a growth mind-set said they would study harder or try a different strategy. The students who held a fixed mind-set, however, were concerned about looking smart with less regard for learning. They had negative views of effort, believing that having to work hard was a sign of low ability. They thought that a person with talent or intelligence did not need to work hard to do well. Attributing a bad grade to their own lack of ability, those with a fixed mind-set said that would study less in the future, try never to take that subject again and consider cheating on future tests.

  38.Focusing on effort is effective in helping children overcome frustration and achieve success.

  【答案】[C] In particular, attributing poor performance to a lack of ability depresses motivation more than does the belief that lack of effort is to blame. When I told a group of school children who displayed helpless behavior that a lack of effort led to their mistakes in math, they learned to keep trying when the problems got tough. Another group of helpless children who were simply rewarded for their success on easier problems did not improve their ability to solve harm math problems. These experiments indicated that a focus on effort can help resolve helplessness and generate success.

  39.We can cultivate a growth mind-set in children by telling success stories that emphasize hard work love of learning.

  【答案】[I] How do we transmit a growth mind-set to our children? One way is by telling stories about achievements that result from hard work. For instance, talking about mathematical geniuses

  Who were more or less born that way puts students in a fixed mind-set, but mathematicians who fell in love with math and developed amazing skills produce a growth mind-set.

  40.Students’ belief about the cause of their failure explains their attitude toward setbacks.

  【答案】[F]As predicted, the students with a growth mind-set felt that learning was more important goal than getting good grades. In addition, they held hard work in high regard, They understood that even geniuses have to work hard. Confronted by a setback such as a disappointing test grade, students with a growth mind-set said they would study harder or try a different strategy. The students who held a fixed mind-set, however, were concerned about looking smart with less regard for learning. They had negative views of effort, believing that having to work hard was a sign of low ability. They thought that a person with talent or intelligence did not need to work hard to do well. Attributing a bad grade to their own lack of ability, those with a fixed mind-set said that would study less in the future, try never to take that subject again and consider cheating on future tests.

  41.In the author’s experiment, student with a growth mind-set showed greater perseverance in solving difficult math problems.

  【答案】[G] Such different outlook had a dramatic impact on performance. At the start of junior high, the math achievement test scores of the students with a growth mind-set were comparable to the those of students who displayed a fixed mind-set. But as the work became more difficult, the students with a growth mind-set showed greater persistence. As a result, their math grades overtook those of the other students by the end of the first semester-and the gap between the two groups continued to widen during the two years we followed them.

  42.The author conducted an experiment to find out about the influence of students’ mind-sets on math learning.

  【答案】[E] We validated these expectations in a study in which two other psychologists and I monitored 373 student for two years during the transition to junior high school, when the work gets more difficult and the grading more strict, to determine how their mind-sets might affect their math grades. At the beginning of seventh grade, we assessed the students' mind-sets by asking them to agree or disagree with statements such as "Your intelligence is something very basic about you that you can't really change." We then assessed their beliefs about other aspects of learning and looked to see what happened to their grades.

  43.After failing again and again, most animals give up hope.

  【答案】[A] I first began to investigate the basis of human motivation-and how people persevere after setbacks-as a psychology graduate student at Yale University in the 1960s. Animal experiments by psychologists at the University of Pennsylvania had shown that after repeated failures, most animals conclude that a situation is hopeless and beyond their control. After such an experience an animal often remains passive even when it can effect change-a state they called learned helplessness.

  44.Informing students about the brain as a learning machine is a good strategy to enhance their motivation for learning.

  【答案】[J] In addition, parents and teachers can help children by providing explicit instruction regarding the mind as a learning machine, I designed an eight-session workshop for 91 students whose math grades were declining in their first year of junior high. Forty-eight of the students received instruction in study skills only, whereas the others attended a combination of study skills sessions and classes in which they learned about the growth mind-set and how to apply it to schoolwork. In the growth mind-set classes, students read and discussed an article entitled “You Can Grow Your Brain.” They were taught that the brain is like a muscle that gets stronger with use and that learning prompts the brain to grow new connections. From such instruction, many students began to see themselves as agents of their own brain development. Despite being unaware that there were two types of instruction, teachers reported significant motivational changes in 27% of the children in the growth mind-set workshop as compared with only 9% of students in the control group.

  45.People with a fixed mind-set believe that one’s intelligence is unchangeable.

  【答案】[D] Later, I developed a broader theory of what separates the two general classes of learners-helpless versus mastery-oriented. I realized these different types of students not only explain their failures differently, but they also hold different “theories” of intelligence. The helpless ones believe intelligence is a fixed characteristic: you have only a certain amount, and that's that. I call this a "fixed mind-set(思维模式)."Mistakes crack their self-confidence because they attribute errors to a lack of ability, which they feel powerless to change. They avoid challenges because challenges make mistakes more likely. The mastery-orient children, on the other hand, think intelligence is not fixed and can be developed through education and hard work. Such children believe challenges are energizing rather than intimidating (令人生畏);

  they offer opportunities to learn. Students with such a growth mind-set were destined(注定)for great academic success and were quite likely to outperform their counterparts.

  46.In the workplace, feedback may not be so welcome to managers with a fixed mind-set.

  【答案】[H] A fixed mind-set can also hinder communication and progress in the workplace and discourage or ignore constructive criticism and advice. Research shows that managers who have a fixed mind-set are less likely to seek or welcome feedback from their employees than are managers with a growth mind-set.

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